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ANCIENT LITERARY SOURCES OF 



THE HISTORY OF THE FORMATIVE ARTS 



AMONG THE GREEKS. 



{Concluded from page 305.) 

IV. The Heliades. — V. Trophonios and Agamedes. 

Commentary D. 

'"*pBE "sea-girt Rhodes," child of Aphrodite and the 
-*■ bride of Helios, bore him seven sons (the Heliades, 
see Text 56), who, says Pindar, "had of him minds 
wiser than any among the men of old, and one of them 
begat (i. e. founded) Kameiros, and Ialysos, his eldest, 
and Lindos (all Rhodian cities), and they held each 
apart their share of cities, making threefold division of 
their father's land, and these men call their dwelling- 
places." Phaethon, one of the sons, and Phaethusa, one 
of the daughters of Helios, were so called after their 
father, who bore the name of QaiBcov, to denote his 
beaming light. After the fall of Phaethon, his sisters 
Phaethusa, Aegle, and Lampetie bewailed his death. 
They were changed into poplar-trees, from which tears 
of amber flowed into the river Eridanos, where the 
nymphs had buried the body of the rash youth. 

The names of Trophonios and Agamedes (see Texts 
57-66), mythic builders of caves, grottos, treasure- 
houses, and crypt-like temples, are as inseparable as 
those of Damon and Pythias. Reputed sons of Erginos, king of Orchomenos in Bceotia, they 
are said to have built the so-called treasure-houses of Hyrieos in Hyria, of Augeias in Elis, of 
Minyas in Orchomenos, which, like those of Agamemnon, Menelaos, Rhampsinitis, Sardanapalos, 
etc., are all subterranean circular buildings with dome-shaped roofs, constructed of horizontal 
layers of stone, projecting one beyond the other to the top, which is closed by a single stone. 
This form of building, says Fergusson {History of Architecture, Vol. I. p. 213), is to be found 
in India, Italy, Asia Minor, and wherever a Pelasgic race can be traced. The country people 
call these structures Qovpvot, ovens, on account of their shape. Forchhammer (Daduchos, pp. 
111-117) considers them to be ancient cisterns, built long before Homer's time, but they are 
generally regarded as royal tombs of Pelasgic origin. 

Pausanias (IX. 39. 5) mentions an ancient wooden statue of Trophonios at Lebadeia. Here was 
the oracle of the deified Zeus Trophonios (see Note 2 to Text 64), who is represented in a fine 
pseudo-archaic bust at the Louvre, formerly in the Talleyrand collection, and figured on this page. 
The reader may consult Ottfried Muller on the treasuries of Orchomenos and Minyas, as also 
Forchhammer's Daduchos, Sillig's Catalogus Artificum, Brunn's Geschichte der Griechischen Kunstler, 
and Preller's Griechische Mythologie, Vol. II. pp. 501, 502, on Trophonios and Agamedes. 




Zeus Trophonios. 
From a Bust in the Louvre. 



482 THE AMERICAN ART REVIEW. 

Text Relating to the Heliades. 

56. Pindar, Olymp., VII. 93, seq. 1 And Glaukopis (Athena) herself gave them to excel the dwellers 
upon earth in every sort of handicraft. For on their roads ran the semblances of beasts and creeping things: 
whereof they have great glory, for to him that hath knowledge the subtlety that is without deceit is the greater 
altogether. — Commentary. For the Rhodians were most excellent in the making of statues. (Tr. F. Myers.) 

1 Ode for Diagoras of Rhodes, winner in the boxing match. 

Texts Relating to Trophonios and Agamedes. 
The Temple of Apollo at Delphi, 

57. Homeric Hymn to the Pythian Apollo, 294-297. Thus saying, Phoibos Apollon laid the ample and 
continuous foundations of his temple ; 1 and upon them Trophonios and Agamedes, sons of Erginos, dear to the 
immortal gods, laid the stone threshold. 

1 First built of laurel-wood (Paus ,. V. 9), then of wax by the bees in the form of a hive, then of bronze. The fourth temple, 
built of stone by Agamedes and Trophonios, was burned in 548 B. c, and rebuilt by Spintharos, a Corinthian architect, for the 
Alkmaionides. It was of the Doric order, and adorned with sculptures by Kalamis of Athens (456 B. a), his pupil Praxias (Paus., 
X. 19. 3), and Androsthenes of Athens. M. Beule {Histoire de VArt Grec, pp. 59-67) gives an interesting account of the present 
appearance of Delphi. 

58. Strabo, IX. iii. 9, p. 361 (ed. Didot). The winged, 1 one of the temples (that is, the one made by the 
bees of wings and wax) , may be considered as mythic ; but the second, they say, was built by Trophonios and 
Agamedes. 

1 Pausanias (V. 9) explains this epithet "as perhaps derived from an inhabitant of Delphi named Pteres (the winged), who is 
said to have built the temple, or from irrepis (fern), which grows there abundantly " 

59. Paus., X. 5. 13. The fourth (temple) was built by Trophonios and Agamedes, and it is recorded that 
they built it of stone. 1 

1 See note to Text 57. 

60. Stephanos of Byzantium, V. At Delphi .... there the doorway is made of five stones, the work of 
Agamedes and Trophonios. 

61. Plutarch, De Consolat. ad Apollon., 14 (Plut. Moral., ed. Dubn., Vol. I. p. 130, line 18). Pindar 
says about Agamedes and Trophonios that, when they had built the temple at Delphi, they asked a reward from 
Apollo, and that he (gave them, in the seventh night, a peaceful death). 1 

1 The legend is that they prayed the god to grant them what was best for man ; that Apollo promised to do so, and fulfilled his 
word on the seventh night by giving them death. 

62. Cicero, Tuscul., I. 47, 114. Who, when they had built the temple of Apollo at Delphi, etc. (essentially 
the same story). See Texts 64, 65. 

The Temple of Poseidon at Mantineia. 

63. Paus., VIII. 10. 2. It is said that the temple of Poseidon l was originally built by Agamedes and Tro- 
phonios, of oaken logs, worked out and fitted together, etc. 

1 The Arkadians, who were great horse breeders, especially reverenced Poseidon, and Mantineia was the seat of a very ancient 
worship of this god. 

The Temple at Delphi and the Treasure- House of Hyrieos. 

64. Paus., IX. 37. 4. He (Erginos), having married a young woman (as directed by the oracle), became the 

father of Trophonios and Agamedes. It is said that Trophonios was the son of Apollo, and not of Erginos 

These (Trophonios and Agamedes), when they had grown to manhood, became skilful builders of temples for the 
gods, and of palaces for men; as, for instance, the temple of Apollo at Delphi, and the treasury of King Hyrieos. 1 
This they built in such a way that one of the stones could be removed from the outside, etc. 2 

1 Son of Poseidon, and king of Hyria in Boeotia. 

2 They did this in order that they might secretly enter and rob the king of his treasures. He, being unable to detect the 
robbers, set a trap, into which Agamedes fell. Hyrieos pursued Trophonios to Lebadeia, where he was swallowed up by the earth, 
or took refuge in agrotto. There he was revered under the name of Zeus Trophonios. Herodotos (II. 121) tells an identical story 
about the robbing of the treasury of King Rhampsinitis in Egypt. 

Temple at Delphi, and the Treasury of Augeias. 

65. Commentary on the Clouds of Aristophanes, 508 (ed. Dindorf). Trophonios was a most excellent 
stone-carver, who built the temple above ground at Lebadeia in Boeotia Otherwise (i. e. another account 





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THE AMERICAN ART REVIEW. 



483 



is) thus given by Charax l in his fourth book. Agamedes, the archon of Stymphalos, .... married Epikaste 2 
(Iokaste), of whom Trophonios was the illegitimate child. These (Agamedes and Trophonios) surpassed all their 
contemporaries in the skill with which they built the temple of Apollo. At Elis they constructed the golden 
treasure-house of Augeias, etc. 3 

1 Charax was a native of Pergamum, priest and historian, author of the Hellenika and the Chronika. 

2 Epikaste, or Iocaste, was the wife of Laios and mother of Oidipos. 

8 King of the Epeians in Elis, the cleansing of whose stable was one of the labors imposed upon Herakles. 

The Bridal Chamber of Alkmene at Thebes. 

66. Pausanias, IX. 11. 1. And among the ruins (of the house of Amphitryon 1 ) the bridal chamber of 
Alkmene is still visible. They say that Trophonios and Agamedes built it for Amphitryon, and that an inscription 
to this effect was written upon it. When Amphitryon brought his wife Alkmene 2 hither, he chose for himself this 
nuptial chamber, which Arkasios and Trophonios and Agamedes had made. (See Heroic Homeric Art and 
Gitiades.) 

1 Son of Alkaios, king of Troezen. 

2 Daughter of Elektraion, king of Mykenai. 

Charles C. Perkins. 



Having found it impossible to publish the first section of Professor Overbeck's Schriftquellen 
in consecutive numbers of the REVIEW (see No. I. p. 20), on account of the abundance of 
matter relating to modern art which could not be delayed, we have now decided to discontinue 
it altogether. At the present rate, the first section could not be completed in less than four 
years, and from twelve to fourteen would be required for the publication of the remaining eight 
sections. The attempt to publish so extensive and learned a work under such conditions was 
manifestly unwise, and we think that even those who urged it upon us at the outset will now 
think us justified in abandoning it. — The EDITORS. 




Helios. 

Bas-Relief found by Dr. Schliemann in the Troad. 

From the Cast in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston.